Bladder cancer is a type of cancer that is caused by an uncontrolled proliferation of cells in the layer called mucosa that is covering inside the bladder. If bladder cancer only remains limited within the mucosa that is covering inside the bladder and does not spread to the muscle layer forming the bladder wall, this is called non-muscle-invasive (superficial) bladder cancer. If it spreads to the muscle layer forming the bladder wall, this is called muscle-invasive (deep) bladder cancer.
Superficial bladder cancer is the more common and lighter form.In these patients the treatment called TUR-bladder surgery method is applied.TUR-urinary bladder surgery is a closed surgical procedure performed by entering a special instrument from the tip of the penis.The tumor tissue removed during surgery is sent to the pathological assay.According to the pathology results, it may be necessary to administer a number of drugs (TB microbe, BCG, chemotherapy drugs) into the bladder at specific intervals.
The bladder is completely removed in the treatment of the bladder cancer which only involves the bladder muscle and does not spread to other parts of body. This process is called radical cystectomy.In the radical cystectomy operation, all of the bladder, prostate, semen canals and the end of the semen canals are removed in men and also bladder, uterus, overies and a part of the vagina wall are removed in women.After the bladder is removed, a new bladder is made from the intestine, or a small intestine section where the urinary canals are connected is also connected to the abdominal wall as a mouth. In these patients, urine is collected in a urine bag (urostomy bag) adhered to the abdominal wall.In the case of bladder made from intestine, urine accumulates in newly constructedintestine bladder and expelledthrough the penis byurination.The patient does not need to use bags.
Radical cystectomy and neo bladder making operations can be performed open, laparoscopic and robotic surgeries. In bladder cancer operations performed by robotic method, incisions of 1 cm are opened in the lower part of the abdomen of the patient. The surgeon performs the operation by means of robotic arms sent from these incisions.The most important advantage of robotic surgery is that robotic arms can perform better maneuvers by entering very narrow areas where the human hand cannot enter.Thus, both the surrounding tissues will be less damaged and the damage to the veins and nerves that cause the penis to erect is prevented. In addition, very small incisions in robotic surgery allow the patients to recover more quickly, to experience less pain and to return to their daily life more quickly.